軟水硬水 Soft Water and Hard Water
Water can be divided into soft and hard, which refers to the amount of minerals (calcium, magnesium, etc.) in the water. Less minerals is soft water, more is hard. Generally speaking, soft water is sweeter, while hard water is bitter. Water hardness is expressed in "mg of minerals/liter of water" or ppm.
而「總溶解物質TDS(Total Dissolve Solids)」是指水中含導電物質的總量，TDS和硬度兩個概念上有部分重合，因為都有涉及水中幾個主要物質鈣、鎂等。
"Total Dissolve Solids (TDS)" refers to the total amount of conductive substances in water. The two concepts of TDS and hardness partially overlap, because they both involve several major substances in water such as calcium and magnesium.
If there are too many minerals in the water, the water will not have enough space for the substances of the coffee, which is also why it is necessary to use soft water to make tea.
In general, coffee brewed with extremely hard water tends to taste bland. This is also why soft water is used to make tea.
According to the data provided by the "World Health Organization," water with calcium and magnesium content below 120 mg is called "soft water" and vice versa is called "hard water."
SCA精品咖啡協會的杯測指南，理想的總溶解物質(TDS)為125-175 ppm，但不應小於100 ppm或大於250 ppm。
The SCA Specialty Coffee Association cupping guidelines ideally have a total dissolved substance (TDS) of 125-175 ppm, but should not be less than 100 ppm or greater than 250 ppm.
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