什麼是手沖咖啡悶蒸 What is Coffee Blooming in Pour-Over Coffee?

 

手沖咖啡已經是我們日常生活的一部分。雖然咖啡愛好者相當注重烘焙、研磨和沖泡手法等,但手沖咖啡中有一個重要環節會影響咖啡的風味:咖啡的悶蒸。今天我們將探討什麼是咖啡悶蒸?

Pour-over coffee has become a part of our daily lives. While coffee enthusiasts pay great attention to factors like roasting, grinding, and brewing techniques, there's one crucial step in pour-over coffee that affects its flavor: blooming. Today, let's explore what coffee blooming is all about.

 

什麼是咖啡悶蒸
咖啡悶蒸是手沖咖啡的第一步驟,將熱水倒在手沖濾杯中的咖啡粉,讓溼潤的咖啡粉釋放出二氧化碳氣體,導致咖啡粉膨脹並冒泡,悶蒸時間通常是30秒;此時讓咖啡粉均勻的溼潤並適當地排出二氧化碳,好讓接下來的熱水可以與咖啡粉更完整地接觸,以提高萃取率。

What is Coffee Blooming?

Coffee blooming is the first step in pour-over coffee brewing. During this stage, hot water is poured over freshly ground coffee in the pour-over dripper. The characteristic of this stage is to allow the moistened coffee grounds to release carbon dioxide gas, causing the coffee grounds to expand and bubble. The blooming time is typically around 30 seconds. This process ensures even wetting of the coffee grounds and the proper release of carbon dioxide, allowing the subsequent hot water to make better contact with the coffee grounds, thereby improving extraction efficiency.

 

悶蒸膨脹的效果在手沖濾杯中(Hario V60、Chemex和Kalita Wave)最為明顯,但在其他沖煮方式,如法式濾壓壺、虹吸式塞風壺和杯測中也會出現。咖啡豆經烘焙後富含二氧化碳氣體,在咖啡研磨後,咖啡顆粒的表面積增加,在接觸熱水時可以更快釋放二氧化碳氣體,讓咖啡粉膨脹上升並冒泡。
The blooming effect is most pronounced in pour-over drippers such as Hario V60, Chemex, and Kalita Wave, but it also occurs in other brewing methods such as French press, siphon, and cupping. After roasting, coffee beans contain a significant amount of carbon dioxide gas. Upon grinding, the surface area of the coffee particles increases, allowing for faster release of carbon dioxide gas upon contact with hot water, causing the coffee grounds to expand and bubble up.

 

為什麼咖啡悶蒸很重要
咖啡悶蒸是咖啡沖泡的重要因素,可以提高萃取率、增加萃取均勻度和減少萃取偏流。如果跳過悶蒸,一開始就直接在手沖濾杯中注水,會讓一部份的咖啡粉沒有濕潤到,而水會優先選擇已經濕潤的區域走、而乾燥部份會拒絕水的浸入。在悶蒸階段,二氧化碳氣體的釋放也會導致咖啡脫氣或釋放其他揮發性化合物,有助於集中品嚐咖啡的風味。

Why is Coffee Blooming Important?

Coffee blooming is a critical factor in coffee brewing as it can improve extraction efficiency, promote uniform extraction, and reduce channeling. Skipping the blooming step and pouring water directly into the pour-over dripper will result in some of the coffee grounds not being adequately moistened. Water will preferentially flow to the already moistened areas, while the dry parts will resist water penetration. During the blooming stage, the release of carbon dioxide gas also aids in degassing the coffee or releasing other volatile compounds, helping to concentrate the flavors for a more enjoyable coffee tasting experience.

 

為了獲得良好的咖啡悶蒸效果,需要考慮以下幾個重要因素:

To achieve optimal coffee blooming effects, several key factors need to be considered:

 

1. 咖啡的新鮮度

咖啡越新鮮,含有的二氧化碳氣體就越多,悶蒸效果就越顯著。建議使用新鮮烘焙二到四週內的咖啡,會有最佳的悶蒸效果。如果是剛烘焙好的豆子,例如烘焙好5天內的豆子,二氧化碳氣體很多,悶蒸效果會很膨脹,會讓熱水與咖啡粉的接觸時間減少,反而不利於咖啡萃取,所以會有養豆的程序。

1. Freshness of Coffee

The fresher the coffee, the more carbon dioxide gas it contains, resulting in a more significant blooming effect. It's recommended to use coffee that has been roasted within two to four weeks for the best blooming results. If using freshly roasted beans, such as those roasted within five days, which contain a lot of carbon dioxide gas, the blooming effect will be expanded, causing the hot water to have less contact time with the coffee grounds. This may not be conducive to coffee extraction, hence the need for an aging period for the beans.

延伸閱讀:咖啡玩家必學,養豆及醒豆

Further reading: Coffee Lovers must learn: Coffee bean aging and decanting

 

2. 研磨粗細度

咖啡的研磨度會影響悶蒸,過細的研磨讓氣體更快的釋放,導致更劇烈的膨脹,並容易導致沖泡後段的淤積堵塞和萃取不均勻;相反的,過粗的研磨會導致氣體釋放較慢,導致悶蒸膨起不那麼明顯,並降低咖啡萃取率。

2. Grind Size

The grind size of coffee affects blooming. Too fine of a grind allows gas to release more quickly, leading to more vigorous blooming and potentially causing clogging and uneven extraction in the later stages of brewing. Conversely, too coarse results in slower gas release, leading to less pronounced blooming and reduced coffee extraction.

延伸閱讀:關於研磨顆粒

Further reading: About Grind Particles

 

3. 水溫

水溫建議在85-95度之間,以達到最佳萃取和脫氣效果。水溫較高可以有較膨脹的悶蒸,但水溫太高會導致過度萃取和苦味;水溫較低的悶蒸膨脹較不明顯,而水溫太低會導致萃取不足和缺乏風味。

3. Water Temperature

The recommended water temperature is between 85-95℃ to achieve optimal extraction and degassing effects. Higher water temperatures can produce more pronounced blooming, but excessively high temperatures can lead to over-extraction and bitterness. Lower water temperatures result in less noticeable blooming, and excessively low temperatures can result in under-extraction and a lack of flavor.

延伸閱讀:水溫對咖啡風味的影響

Further reading: The effect of water temperature on coffee flavors

 

4. 注水手法

手沖注水手法也會影響悶蒸膨脹,建議以繞圓周方式注水,從中心開始向外移動。這讓整個咖啡粉床均勻溼潤和氣體均勻釋放。也有人建議在悶蒸時用湯匙攪拌達到均勻,但效果並不顯著,這可能是因為攪拌會在咖啡粉床上打開通道讓水通過,抵消了將水和咖啡粉溼潤在一起的優勢。如果選擇攪拌悶蒸,可能使用多一點的水會更好,以抵消更容易穿過咖啡粉床的水。攪拌悶蒸比較適合聰明濾杯/浸漬濾杯,在悶蒸膨脹階段將水保留在濾杯中。

4. Pouring Technique

The pouring technique also affects blooming. It's recommended to pour water in a circular motion, starting from the center and moving outward, ensuring even wetting of the coffee bed and uniform gas release. Some people suggest stirring during blooming for uniformity, but the effectiveness may not be significant. This may be because stirring opens channels in the coffee bed, allowing water to pass through, offsetting the advantage of moistening the coffee grounds. If choosing to stir during blooming, using slightly more water may be beneficial to counteract water that may more easily pass through the coffee bed. Stirring during blooming is more suitable for smart drippers/immersion drippers, where water is retained in the dripper during blooming.

延伸閱讀:聰明濾杯(浸漬式濾杯)有多聰明,實測給你看

Further reading: How Smart Is Smart Dripper (Immersion Dripper), Let's See It in Action!

 

5. 悶蒸時間

咖啡悶蒸的時間可能會因咖啡的新鮮度、研磨粗細度和沖泡手法而異。一般來說,以手沖咖啡的沖泡方法,建議的悶蒸時間為30秒。

5. Blooming Time

The blooming time may vary depending on the freshness of the coffee, grind size, and brewing technique. Generally, for pour-over coffee brewing methods, a blooming time of 30 seconds is recommended.

 

手沖咖啡悶蒸是咖啡沖泡過程中的重要步驟,有助於均勻溼潤咖啡粉並釋放咖啡風味,確保手沖咖啡的品飲品質。在悶蒸之後,接下來的步驟是進行完整的注水沖泡,以使咖啡粉與水充分接觸,從而萃取出咖啡的完整風味和特性。

Coffee blooming is an essential step in the coffee brewing process, facilitating even wetting of coffee grounds and the release of coffee flavors, ensuring the quality of the coffee drinking experience. Following blooming, the next step is to complete the brewing process by pouring water to fully saturate the coffee grounds, thus extracting the full flavor and characteristics of the coffee.

 

延伸閱讀:悶蒸為何膨不起來

           Further reading: Why coffee grounds doesn't swell during blooming?


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