咖啡萃取率 關鍵4要素 4 Key Factors Affecting Coffee Extraction Rate

今天想沖一杯輕盈感的咖啡,可以降低萃取率;或是想走醇厚感路線,可以提高萃取率,認識萃取率很重要!了解影響咖啡萃取的關鍵4要素,隨時沖出心中美味的好咖啡。

Today, if you want a light-bodied coffee, you can reduce the extraction rate; or if you prefer a full-bodied flavor, you can increase the extraction rate. Understanding the coffee extraction rate is essential! Knowing the key factors that affect coffee extraction, you can easily make a delicious cup of coffee anytime.

 

手沖咖啡中最常聽到的二個詞,一個是萃取率、一個是粉水比,二者相互影響手沖咖啡的品飲感受。粉水比、即粉與水的比例,最常被用到的是1:15,即用20克咖啡粉、沖300克熱水,如果這是我們平時喝的濃度,那降低萃取率、或提高萃取率,可以改變品飲的感受,即上一段提到的輕盈感或醇厚感。每一支豆子各有風味特色,這裏指的調整,是在同一支豆子既有的特色下去調整,而不是將原本就沒有的特色給變出來。

The two most commonly heard terms in pour-over coffee are extraction rate and coffee-water ratio. The two are interdependent and affect the taste of hand-drip coffee. The coffee-water ratio, or the ratio of coffee to water, is most commonly used at 1:15, i.e., using 20g of coffee powder and 300g of hot water. If this is the concentration we usually drink, we can change the taste by reducing or increasing the extraction rate, resulting in a light-bodied or full-bodied flavor, respectively. Each bean has unique flavor characteristics, and the adjustment we refer to here is to adjust within the existing flavor profile of the same bean, not to create new flavors that do not exist.

 

│延伸閱讀:完美手沖咖啡的黃金比例
Further reading: The Golden Ratio for Perfect Hand-Drip Coffee

 

咖啡萃取率關鍵4要素是: 水溫、磨粉、時間、焙度。手法也會影響,但手法的變因過多,我們不好掌控,先掌控這4個比較容易上手的要素。簡單繪圖如下,並依上手容易度由上往下排列,繪4個箭頭圖形,愈往右、萃取率愈高,愈往左、萃取率愈低:

The four key factors affecting coffee extraction rate are water temperature, grind size, time, and roast degree. Although the brewing method also affects coffee extraction, it has too many variables to control, so we will focus on these four elements that are relatively easy to master. The following simple diagram illustrates the four factors, ranked from easiest to most difficult to master, with four arrow-shaped graphics. The farther right, the higher the extraction rate, and the farther left, the lower the extraction rate.

 

水溫
在其他條件不變下,水溫越高,咖啡中揮發性的香氣與水溶性物質會更快的被釋出;水溫越低,越沒辦法萃取出來。所以若沖出來的咖啡感覺苦、濃等,可嘗試降低水溫;若沖出來感覺水感重、味道淡等,那就代表還有很多可溶性物質仍留在咖啡粉中,下次沖煮時,可提高水溫。

Water temperature

Under other unchanged conditions, the higher the water temperature, the faster the volatile aroma and water-soluble substances in the coffee will be released. Conversely, the lower the water temperature, the less able it is to extract these substances. If the coffee tastes bitter or strong, try lowering the water temperature. If the coffee tastes watery or bland, it means that there are still many soluble substances left in the coffee powder, so you can increase the water temperature when brewing next time.

 

磨粉
在其他條件不變下,磨粉越細,咖啡粉與熱水接觸面積愈大。一克的咖啡豆大約有7~8顆豆子(以衣索比亞豆為例),但經研磨成手沖顆粒後,每一克大約有700個顆粒,如此與熱水接觸的面積即增加了非常多倍。所以磨粉愈細、顆粒愈多、萃取率愈高,反之萃取率則愈低。

Grind size

Under other unchanged conditions, the finer the grind size, the larger the contact area between the coffee powder and hot water. One gram of coffee beans usually contains about 7-8 beans (using Ethiopian beans as an example), but after grinding into pour-over particles, each gram contains about 700 particles. The contact area with hot water thus increases many times over. Therefore, the finer the grind size, the more particles, and the higher the extraction rate. Conversely, the coarser the grind size, the lower the extraction rate.

 

時間
一般來說,最常用也是最好拿捏的時間是2分30秒、含悶蒸時間30秒,以此為基準,如果要增加萃取率、就延長時間,降低萃取率、就縮短時間。但通常在改變萃取時間時,多重變因會跟著改變,特別是延長時間來說,手沖壺水的溫度會因延長而降低、咖啡粉會容易吸飽水而讓濾杯淤積等;而減短時間又容易過度降低萃取率、而產生萃取不足。所以上述的第1、第2個變因是比較容易掌握,最後再來調整沖煮時間。

Time

Generally, the most commonly used and best time to control is 2 minutes and 30 seconds, with a 30-second blooming time. If you want to increase the extraction rate, extend the time, and if you want to decrease the extraction rate, shorten the time. However, when changing the extraction time, multiple factors usually change simultaneously, especially when extending the time. For example, the water temperature of the pour-over kettle will decrease due to the longer time, the coffee powder will easily absorb water, causing the filter to clog, etc. Shortening the time may result in insufficient extraction. Therefore, the first two factors mentioned above are relatively easier to control and the brewing time can be adjusted accordingly at the end.

 

焙度
焙度越深、咖啡豆的細胞孔體越被撐大、熱水愈容易萃取其中的可溶性物質;反之,焙度愈淺、萃取率愈低。咖啡豆是由數百萬個細胞組成的多孔體。一般來說,一個普通的咖啡豆包含4,500,000個孔洞,每個孔洞大小約為50-70μm(微米)。咖啡風味來自可溶性物質,即存在這些孔洞中。水只能從可接觸到的孔洞中萃取可溶性物質,經過研磨咖啡,增加了水可以進入的孔洞數量。由於這個變因已被烘豆師定調,在手沖階段無法調整它,但我們要知道焙度與萃取率的關係,才能用上述3種變因來調整萃取率。

Roast Degree

The darker the roast degree, the more the cell pores of the coffee beans expand, making it easier for hot water to extract soluble substances. Conversely, the lighter the roast degree, the lower the extraction rate. Coffee beans are made up of millions of pores. Generally speaking, a regular coffee bean contains 4.5 million pores, with each pore measuring approximately 50-70μm. Coffee flavor comes from soluble substances that exist within these pores. Water can only extract soluble substances from the pores it can come into contact with. Grinding coffee increases the number of pores that water can enter. Since this variable has already been determined by the roaster and cannot be adjusted during the pour-over brewing stage, we need to understand the relationship between roast degree and extraction rate in order to adjust the extraction rate using the aforementioned three variables.

 

掌握好咖啡萃取率關鍵4要素: 水溫、磨粉、時間、焙度,JC咖啡跟您一起沖出好咖啡。再放上手沖咖啡計竅圖,多嘗試調整上述4個變因,手沖咖啡達人就在你家!

Master the four key elements of coffee extraction: water temperature, grind size, time, and roast degree, and let Justin Coffee help you brew a great cup of coffee. Check out our pour-over brewing tips and experiment with adjusting these four variables - soon, you'll be a coffee brewing pro right in your own home!

 

 


推薦商品:

    

✔ 堅持新鮮烘焙 ✔ 堅持篩豆 再烘焙 ✔ 堅持使用莊園咖啡
➤ 專業烘焙帶出咖啡多元又豐沛的個性
➤ CQI Q Grader咖啡品質鑑定師,親自杯測品鑑,為您把關每一杯咖啡
➤ 單一莊園咖啡 具風味、層次佳

 Stick to fresh roasting  Stick to sieving and roasting  Stick to estate coffee
 Professional roasting brings out the diverse and rich personality of coffee
 CQI Q Grader coffee quality appraisers, personally cupping and evaluate, check every cup of coffee for you
 Single-origin coffee with good flavor and structures


歡迎到JC咖啡逛逛

已加入購物車
已更新購物車
網路異常,請重新整理