厭氧處理法 Anaerobic Fermentation
There is a kind of coffee with a wine aroma, which has a special and clear flavor, and has been very popular in the coffee market recently. This special treatment method is borrowing from the wine brewing technology, which makes the possibility of coffee aroma production leap to a new height level.
All coffee starts from the fruit and goes through several transformation steps to become coffee. Although anaerobic fermentation is relatively new, aerobic fermentation (which includes oxygen in the process) has become common practice. Fermentation begins once the coffee is picked due to the presence of water, sugar, bacteria and yeast. The sugars and acids in coffee mucilage are then converted into different acids, carbon dioxide, ethanol and other compounds. Coffees are fermented differently depending on whether they are washed, natural, or honey-processed, resulting in a variety of flavors.
Compared to aerobic fermentation, anaerobic fermentation produces different acids, such as lactic acid, which end up with a distinct flavor. During this process, anaerobic bacteria are placed in airtight tanks that are pressurized by the buildup of carbon dioxide, and the remaining pressure and oxygen are released using a release valve. This extra pressure forces juices and sugars into the green beans. After a period of time, the coffee cherries are washed, sun-dried or honey-processed.
This is also a new way of processing red wine. Coffee first used this method in 2015. The world barista champion Sasa Sestic was inspired by a winemaker in his hometown in Australia. At the World Barista Championship that year, Sestic placed the coffee fruit in a sealed metal container (stainless steel barrel) to inject carbon dioxide and discharge oxygen. Thus it could be fermented and decomposed in an oxygen-free environment. The PH value, gas composition, humidity, temperature, and even factors such as the type and quantity of bacteria involved in fermentation can be effectively controlled to develop a better sweetness and a more balanced flavor. This carbonic maceration is associated with lighter-bodied, fruit-forward contemporary wines.
尼加拉瓜Fincas Mierisch的Erwin Mierisch農場自2018年一直在試驗，他發現不僅發酵時間長短具有影響，而且溫度控製也有重大影響。溫度在很大程度上決定所呈現的風味類型，在較熱的發酵中，發現更強烈的味道，如棕色香料(肉桂、丁香、紅糖)；而在較冷的發酵中(在攝氏8-10度發酵)，發現更乾淨和充滿活力的酸度，Mierisch補充說，在Fincas Mierisch，他們更喜歡低溫發酵的結果。
Erwin Mierisch's farm in Fincas Mierisch, Nicaragua, has been experimenting since 2018, and he has found that not only the length of fermentation has an effect, but also the temperature control has a major impact. Temperature largely determines the type of flavors presented, in hotter fermentations, more intense flavors are found such as brown spices (cinnamon, cloves, brown sugar); cooler fermentation (8~10 degrees) found cleaner and more vibrant acidity. Mierisch added that they prefer the result of lower-temperature fermentation at Fincas Mierisch.
Anaerobic fermentation has sparked a mini-scientific revolution among coffee producers, who have realized that they no longer have to rely on luck to improve quality and have more control than ever before. We can all benefit from a richer coffee flavor experience.
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