手沖咖啡是誰發明的?Who Invented Pour-over Coffee?

 

手沖咖啡的歷史可以追溯到19世紀,當時咖啡在歐洲變得越來越受歡迎。然而,手沖咖啡的製作方法和相關設備在歷史的不同階段有所演變,反映了人們對於咖啡品質和沖泡技術的不斷追求,從濾網的出現、Melitta發明濾紙、經典玻璃手沖壺Chemex再到最多人使用的V60濾杯,每一步都在追求更好的咖啡風味和品質,彰顯了人們對於手沖咖啡飲品的深厚熱愛。
The history of pour-over coffee can be traced back to the 19th century when coffee became increasingly popular in Europe. However, the brewing methods and related equipment of pour-over coffee have evolved over different stages of history, reflecting people's continuous pursuit of coffee quality and brewing techniques. From the emergence of filters, the invention of filter paper by Melitta, the classic glass Chemex pour-over pot, to the most widely used V60 coffee dripper, each step has been taken to pursue better coffee flavor and quality, showcasing people's deep love for pour-over coffee beverages.

 

19世紀中期:濾網的出現

1840年左右,一位法國家庭主婦和一位蘇格蘭海洋工程師同時發明了虹吸式咖啡(Siphon),虹吸壺真空管底部有過濾篩子設計,便會將沖煮過後之咖啡渣留於玻璃容器內,這便是過濾篩子的出現。到1852年,兩個法國人Mayer和Delforge發明了法式濾壓壺(French Press)初型,他們使用金屬或布濾網連接一根桿上,該桿向下壓就過濾掉咖啡渣。濾網提供了一種更有效的過濾方法,使咖啡更澄清,同時也提高了沖泡的效率。

Mid-19th Century: Emergence of Filters

Around 1840, a French housewife and a Scottish marine engineer simultaneously invented the siphon coffee maker, which had a filter at the bottom of the siphon pot to retain coffee grounds in the glass container. This marked the emergence of filters. By 1852, two Frenchmen, Mayer and Delforge, invented the prototype of the French press. They used a metal or cloth filter connected to a rod, which was pressed downward to filter out the coffee grounds. The filter provided a more effective filtration method, resulting in clearer coffee while also improving brewing efficiency.

 

20世紀初:Melitta發明濾紙

1908年,德國女性Melitta Bentz發明了第一個現代濾紙,她使用一張手工製作的濾紙,將其放在一個金屬構架上,這種方式極大地改進了咖啡的風味和質量;比起金屬濾網,沖煮出來的咖啡少了咖啡渣之後,不僅咖啡渣在口中的古怪口感消失了,苦味與澀味也跟著降低,製作出來的咖啡比以往更加順口。Melitta的發明對手沖咖啡的歷史產生了深遠的影響,並在咖啡文化中引入了濾紙的使用。

Early 20th Century: Melitta Invents Filter Paper

In 1908, German woman Melitta Bentz invented the first modern coffee filter paper. She used a handmade filter paper placed on a metal frame, which significantly improved the flavor and quality of coffee. Compared to metal filters, brewing coffee with filter paper resulted in less coffee grounds, eliminating the strange mouthfeel of coffee grounds and reducing bitterness and astringency. Melitta's invention had a profound impact on the history of pour-over coffee and introduced the use of filter paper in coffee culture.

 

20世紀後半:Chemex玻璃手沖壺

1941年,經典的玻璃手沖壺Chemex由德國化學家Peter Schlumbohm發明,他的化學背景使他對咖啡如何萃取有深入的了解。他借鑒了這一點製造厚紙過濾器,製造商稱其可以過濾杯子中的苦味成分、油和咖啡渣。Chemex因其時尚的外觀、功能和沖泡大批量咖啡的能力而受到讚賞,使其成為咖啡愛好者的熱門選擇。

Late 20th Century: Chemex Glass Pour-over Pot

In 1941, the classic glass Chemex pour-over pot was invented by German chemist Peter Schlumbohm. His background in chemistry gave him a deep understanding of how coffee is extracted. He manufactured thick paper filters, which the manufacturer claimed could filter out bitterness, oils, and coffee grounds in the cup. Chemex was praised for its stylish appearance, functionality, and ability to brew large batches of coffee, making it a popular choice among coffee enthusiasts.

 

21世紀初:最多人使用的V60濾杯

在2004年,Hario第一款陶瓷V60濾杯量產並銷售,現在有各種材質可以選擇,包括塑膠、玻璃、銅,還有陶瓷等材質。Hario於1921年在東京成立,最初生產玻璃產品。其V60的開發是為了改進現有的過濾器支架,並裝紙過濾。圓錐體的角度為60°,這使得水流向中心,延長水與咖啡粉的接觸時間。具有一個大的單孔,讓手沖能透過改變水流的速度來改變風味。V60具有螺旋肋,可讓空氣逸出,從而最大限度地膨脹咖啡渣。

Early 21st Century: Most Widely Used V60 Coffee Dripper

In 2004, Hario's first ceramic V60 dripper was mass-produced and sold. Now there are various materials to choose from, including plastic, glass, copper, and ceramic. Hario was established in Tokyo in 1921, originally producing glass products. The development of its V60 was to improve existing filter holders and incorporate paper filters. The cone angle is 60 degrees, which directs water toward the center, extending the contact time between water and coffee grounds. With a large single hole, the V60 allows for changes in flavor by altering the flow rate of water. The V60 has spiral ribs to allow air to escape, maximizing the expansion of coffee grounds.

 

手沖咖啡在21世紀逐漸成為咖啡愛好者的首選,手沖咖啡成為了一種藝術,除了專賣手沖咖啡的咖啡廳大量出現之外,由於手沖咖啡是非常講究個人感覺的,因此也吹起了一股手沖個人化的浪潮。莎士比亞說過:一千個人眼中,就有一千個哈姆雷特。手沖咖啡亦如此,一杯手沖咖啡,從研磨、水溫、沖煮時間、粉水比到手法等因素皆會影響最終一杯手沖咖啡的呈現;由一千個人手沖,變化出一千種的咖啡風味。

In the 21st century, pour-over coffee gradually became the preferred choice of coffee enthusiasts, becoming an art form. Besides the proliferation of coffee shops specializing in pour-over coffee, a wave of personalized pour-over coffee has also emerged due to its emphasis on individual preferences. As Shakespeare said: "There are a thousand Hamlets in a thousand people's eyes." Pour-over coffee is the same—brewed by a thousand different people, it produces a thousand different coffee flavors, influenced by factors such as grinding, water temperature, brewing time, coffee-to-water ratio, and technique.

 


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