手沖咖啡是誰發明的？Who Invented Pour-over Coffee?
The history of pour-over coffee can be traced back to the 19th century when coffee became increasingly popular in Europe. However, the brewing methods and related equipment of pour-over coffee have evolved over different stages of history, reflecting people's continuous pursuit of coffee quality and brewing techniques. From the emergence of filters, the invention of filter paper by Melitta, the classic glass Chemex pour-over pot, to the most widely used V60 coffee dripper, each step has been taken to pursue better coffee flavor and quality, showcasing people's deep love for pour-over coffee beverages.
Mid-19th Century: Emergence of Filters
Around 1840, a French housewife and a Scottish marine engineer simultaneously invented the siphon coffee maker, which had a filter at the bottom of the siphon pot to retain coffee grounds in the glass container. This marked the emergence of filters. By 1852, two Frenchmen, Mayer and Delforge, invented the prototype of the French press. They used a metal or cloth filter connected to a rod, which was pressed downward to filter out the coffee grounds. The filter provided a more effective filtration method, resulting in clearer coffee while also improving brewing efficiency.
Early 20th Century: Melitta Invents Filter Paper
In 1908, German woman Melitta Bentz invented the first modern coffee filter paper. She used a handmade filter paper placed on a metal frame, which significantly improved the flavor and quality of coffee. Compared to metal filters, brewing coffee with filter paper resulted in less coffee grounds, eliminating the strange mouthfeel of coffee grounds and reducing bitterness and astringency. Melitta's invention had a profound impact on the history of pour-over coffee and introduced the use of filter paper in coffee culture.
Late 20th Century: Chemex Glass Pour-over Pot
In 1941, the classic glass Chemex pour-over pot was invented by German chemist Peter Schlumbohm. His background in chemistry gave him a deep understanding of how coffee is extracted. He manufactured thick paper filters, which the manufacturer claimed could filter out bitterness, oils, and coffee grounds in the cup. Chemex was praised for its stylish appearance, functionality, and ability to brew large batches of coffee, making it a popular choice among coffee enthusiasts.
Early 21st Century: Most Widely Used V60 Coffee Dripper
In 2004, Hario's first ceramic V60 dripper was mass-produced and sold. Now there are various materials to choose from, including plastic, glass, copper, and ceramic. Hario was established in Tokyo in 1921, originally producing glass products. The development of its V60 was to improve existing filter holders and incorporate paper filters. The cone angle is 60 degrees, which directs water toward the center, extending the contact time between water and coffee grounds. With a large single hole, the V60 allows for changes in flavor by altering the flow rate of water. The V60 has spiral ribs to allow air to escape, maximizing the expansion of coffee grounds.
In the 21st century, pour-over coffee gradually became the preferred choice of coffee enthusiasts, becoming an art form. Besides the proliferation of coffee shops specializing in pour-over coffee, a wave of personalized pour-over coffee has also emerged due to its emphasis on individual preferences. As Shakespeare said: "There are a thousand Hamlets in a thousand people's eyes." Pour-over coffee is the same—brewed by a thousand different people, it produces a thousand different coffee flavors, influenced by factors such as grinding, water temperature, brewing time, coffee-to-water ratio, and technique.
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